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The continuous miniaturization of transistors led to innovations in manufacturing processes, and innovations from alloy process fabrication to planar process fabrication led to an even greater step in transistor miniaturization. The planar process not only advanced the production of semiconductor devices to a new stage of mass production, but also laid the industrial technology foundation for the birth of the integrated circuit.  

Introduction of Integrated Circuits  

Although the miniaturization of transistors raised the miniaturization of electronic devices to a new level, the miniaturization of transistors was still far from meeting the needs of society, especially the military, with the rapid advancement of computers, artificial satellites, aerospace and other technologies. In order to reduce the weight and volume of electronic devices, not only transistors have to be smaller, but also electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, and relays have to be smaller. As a result, people began to make various attempts and efforts on the high density of electronic equipment, the emergence of the "micromodule assembly" type of electronic equipment, that is, a variety of electronic components first managed to densely assembled together, and then stacked into a three-dimensional structure. However, such efforts are still a long way from the requirements of aerospace and other sophisticated electronic equipment. Can transistors, crystal diodes and other necessary components be assembled on a semiconductor wafer in accordance with the requirements of electronic circuits? This seems to be a natural question.  

In 1952, Geoffrey Dummer, an engineer at the Royal Radar Station, proposed the idea of such an integrated circuit, and in May 1958, Jack Kilby, employed by Texas Instruments, immediately began research into miniaturizing transistor circuits. on September 12, Kilby finally made a resistor from a germanium block, a PN junction germanium crystal from a capacitors, and mounted germanium transistors, etc. on a germanium wafer on a glass plate. At the end of 1958, Kilby and his colleagues used silicon blocks with oxide layers to make capacitors, used diffusion to make diffusion-layer resistors, and used silicon junction crystal control to make integrated phase-shift oscillator circuits. In late 1958, Kilby and his colleagues made capacitors from silicon blocks with oxide layers, made diffusion-layer resistors by diffusion, and made integrated phase-shift oscillator circuits from silicon junction crystals. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for this work.  

In 1959, Noyce (Robert Noyce) of Centson Semiconductor made a silicon integrated circuit with a planar process, which truly realized the monolithic integrated circuit and became the prototype of the later development of integrated circuits. 1960, the first MOS integrated circuit was born. 1962, the world's first integrated circuit with only 12 transistors and resistors appeared in the official commodity, marking the In 1965, Gordon Moore, the founder of Intel Corporation, proposed the famous Moore's Law, which states that the number of components that can be accommodated on a chip will increase by a factor of one every 18 to 24 months, and the performance will also increase by a factor of one. The invention of integrated circuits opened the way for the development of microelectronics and microelectronic technology, which has continued to grow at the rate predicted by Moore's Law and has had an increasingly profound impact on modern industry. 

Innovation in manufacturing processes  

Integrated circuits cannot be separated from the innovation of materials and their manufacturing processes. In 1948, when Shockley was making junction transistors, physical chemist Gordon Teal and engineer John B. Little helped him make the first crystal pulling machine, which made PN junctions from molten crystal and NPN junction single crystals by doping with impurities. As later researchers commented that "whatever kind of amplifier Shockley designed, it could only be some sketches for his own amusement." In other words, without the technology of purifying semiconductor materials and growing single crystals and doping them with impurities, high-performance transistors could not have been created.  

Similarly, without silicon oxide mask, circuit diagram printing, etching and diffusion technology, planar transistors and integrated circuits would not have been possible, and the development of microelectronics technology would not have been possible. 1957, it was discovered that silicon dioxide on the surface of silicon has the effect of preventing the diffusion of impurities into the silicon, which directly led to the emergence of silicon planar process technology. In 1960, H. H. Loar and H. Christensen invented the epitaxial process. Spiller and E. Castellani invented the photolithography process. The photolithography machine is the core equipment for chip fabrication, and the principle is the same as the photographic plate making in the old printing industry. Driven by Moore's law, the lithography process exposure method has undergone changes from contact lithography/proximity lithography in the 1960s, projection lithography in the 1970s, step lithography/stepping scanning lithography/immersion lithography in the 1980s and now EUV lithography, spanning 1 µm, 0.5 µm, 0.18 µm, 90 nm, 65 nm, 45 nm and other nodes in technology, 45nm and other nodes. The continuous innovation of photolithography drives the development of integrated circuit technology.  

Ultra-large-scale integrated circuits have become the foundation of modern industry  

Since the introduction of integrated circuits, radio and electronic devices have been "integrated" movement. From electronic computers to various electronic instruments, from aerospace complex electronic equipment to industrial automation control equipment, and today's cloud computing, Internet of Things, big data and other emerging industries, integrated circuits continue to develop in accordance with Moore's Law speed.  

The emergence of large-scale integrated circuits

Integrated circuits can be divided into small-scale integrated circuits, medium-scale integrated circuits, large-scale integrated circuits and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits according to the level of integration. It is generally believed that a single chip containing dozens of components is small scale, more than 100 to 1000 is medium scale, more than 1000 is large scale, and more than 100,000 is ultra-large scale. The rapid development of integrated circuits is the inevitable result of technology and economic development. Improve the integration of integrated circuits in line with people's intuitive imagination, the entire line system, the entire radio equipment collectively on a single chip can not only greatly save labor costs, and large-scale integrated circuits and a small number of components of the simple integrated circuit process is not much different. In addition, the 1960s electronic computers have increasingly deep into the national economy, scientific research and national defense and other sectors, with small-scale integrated circuit assembly either cost or technology is unsatisfactory. MOS transistors because of the simple structure, the chip area occupied by small and multiple tube integration without increasing the "isolation" measures, etc. Advantages, so in 1967 the United States Bell Labs made the first large-scale integrated circuit, and was soon advanced to industrial production and practical applications, occupying an important position.  

Semiconductor memory has been seen as a representative product of the growth of integration, from the number of bytes of storage capacity of 1 kilobit to 4 kilobits, 16 kilobits, 64 kilobits, 256 kilobits and 1 trillion. the late 1970s, the United States Intel Corporation proposed random logic large-scale integrated circuits, the invention of computer central processing unit (CPU) integrated circuits, creating the conditions for the miniaturization of computers. In 1977, the ultra-large-scale integrated circuit with about 150,000 tubes on one chip was introduced, and in 1988, 16 MB of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) was introduced, integrating 35 million tubes on one chip, marking the era of ultra-large-scale integration of integrated circuits.  

Industrial Development of Integrated Circuits  

The development of the integrated circuit industry stems from the demand for quantity and quality of information and the progress of integrated circuit technology, which has penetrated into every corner of national life and become an important support for social development. The IC industry structure has undergone three major changes. 1970s was the formation period of the IC industry led by processing and manufacturing, whose main products were microprocessors, memories and standard general logic circuits, and IC design was only a subsidiary sector. 1980s was the growth period of the IC industry led by IC design, whose main products were microprocessors, microcontrollers and The main products were microprocessors, microcontrollers and specialized integrated circuits. In this period, waferless IC design companies or design departments were established, and foundry factories began to rise. 90s, with the rise of the Internet, the structure of the IC industry formed a specialized pattern of design, manufacturing, packaging and testing into independent lines, and the design industry became the "leader" of the industry. 

The IC industry is mainly located in the United States, Japan, Europe, South Korea and Taiwan, forming a distinctive IC industry. The United States is the birthplace of integrated circuit technology, with Intel, Texas Instruments, Micron and Qualcomm, Broadcom waferless design companies and other large enterprises, leading the world. Japan developed integrated circuits in 1964, becoming the second country in the world to have integrated circuit technology. South Korea's integrated circuit industry began in the 1970s, mainly memory, occupying a majority share of the global market and forming a monopoly situation. Taiwan, China, started in the 1980s and has formed a complete industrial structure. China's IC industry has made considerable achievements during 1956-1978. For example, the first transistor was available in 1956, a DTL-type logic circuit was made in 1965, the first PMOS-type LSI circuit was developed in 1972, and a large electronic computer with 10 million cycles was developed independently in 1976. During the period of 1979-2000, from technology introduction to key support, China's IC enterprises have accumulated technically and developed industrially, but not smoothly. after 2000, with the support and encouragement of various central and local policies, China's IC industry has developed rapidly and achieved a number of independent intellectual property rights with "Chinese core", but there is still a large gap in core technology compared with the international advanced level.  

From the birth of the first integrated circuit to now, exactly one year. To revisit this "core" journey, it is beneficial to China's innovation today. Social needs are the source of major innovations, and the miniaturization and integration of electronic devices point the way to innovation in electronic technology. Without the breakthrough of solid state physics theory, it is difficult to imagine the emergence of transistors and integrated circuits. "ZTE" was banned by the United States "core", highlighting the introduction of talent is more important than the introduction of technology, Silicon Valley is the world's high-tech innovation center, but also the world's talent gathered in the highlands. New technologies can not be transformed into new products without a good innovation environment, and the fair competition innovation environment created by Bell Labs has achieved a complementary and collaborative attack team.

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