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Introduction and Classification of Large Scale Integrated Circuits

Definition of Large Scale Integrated Circuit:

LSI (Large Scale Integration) generally refers to integrated circuits with 100 to 9999 logic gates (or 1000 to 99999 electronic components) on a single chip. An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature electronic device or component. By using certain processes, the necessary electronic components such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and inductors, as well as wiring connections in a circuit, are combined and manufactured on a small or a few small pieces of semiconductor chips or substrate. Then, they are packaged in a tube shell to form a microstructure with the required circuit function, in which all components are structurally integrated into a whole. It can be represented by the letter "IC" (also by symbols such as "N").

Classification of Large Scale Integrated Circuit:

According to functional structure: large-scale integrated circuit can be classified into three categories according to their different functions and structures: analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits, and analog/digital mixed integrated circuits. Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (signals whose amplitude changes with time, such as audio signals of semiconductor radio and magnetic tape signals of tape recorders). The input signal and the output signal are proportional. Digital integrated circuits, on the other hand, are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (signals whose values are discrete in time and amplitude, such as audio signals and video signals for VCD and DVD playback).

According to manufacturing processes: Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and film integrated circuits. Film integrated circuits can be further divided into thick-film integrated circuits and thin-film integrated circuits.

According to the degree of integration: Integrated circuits can be divided into small-scale integrated circuits, medium-scale integrated circuits, large-scale integrated circuits, very-large-scale integrated circuits, ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, and super-large-scale integrated circuits based on their different degrees of integration.

According to the type of conductors: Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits, both of which are digital integrated circuits. Bipolar integrated circuits have complex manufacturing processes and higher power consumption, and typical representative integrated circuits include TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, and STTL. Unipolar integrated circuits have simple manufacturing processes, lower power consumption, and are easier to produce in large-scale integrated circuits. Typical representative integrated circuits include CMOS, NMOS, PMOS, etc.

According to usage: Integrated circuits can be divided into various specialized integrated circuits for use in television, audio, DVD, video recorders, computers, electronic organs, communication, cameras, remote control, voice, alarms, and so on.

According to application fields: Integrated circuits can be divided into standard general-purpose integrated circuits and specialized integrated circuits according to their application fields.

According to appearance: Integrated circuits can be divided into circular (metal case transistor packaging type, generally suitable for high power), flat (with good stability and small size), and dual in-line packaging (DIP) types based on their appearance.

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